Important (Read me first!)

This post is a commentary and does not contain any copyrighted material of the reference source.

We strongly recommend accessing/buying the reference source at the same time.

Reference Source

You can understand each word more deeply by utilizing the following YouTube Posts and PDF files.
Also, see how to use Englist.me?

All Words (186 Words)

You can learn all the words from basic to advanced levels in the order they appear in the contents.
If you want learn all words quickly, you can use Quick Look Video.

Quick Look


Advanced Words (47 Words)

If you are confident in your vocabulary, you may prefer to study with content that covers only advanced-level words.

Word List

You can quickly review the words in this content from the list below.

cruxn: the most important or fundamental part of a matter or situation; the key point or central issue
pandemicn: an outbreak of a disease that affects many people over a very wide area
slapv: to strike something or someone with an open palm or flat object, producing a sharp sound or sensation; to place something firmly, suddenly, or unexpectedly
acknowledgev: to accept or admit the existence, reality, or truth of something; to accept that someone or something has a particular authority or quality; to express obligation, thanks, or gratitude for someone’s help, commitment, etc.;
biospheren: the part of the Earth and its atmosphere in which living organisms exist, including plants, animals, and microorganisms
utterlyadv: completely or absolutely
civilizationn: a complex and highly organized society that has developed over time and has a dominant culture, including features such as language, religion, government, technology, and social customs
fragileadj: delicate or easily broken or damaged
ignorev: to intentionally not listen or pay attention to
profoundadj: extremely great; sensed or experienced very strongly; displaying a high level of knowledge or comprehension
torchn: a portable device that produces a flame, typically one that is used to light a fire or a candle
hummingadj: producing a continuous, low, vibrating sound like that of the bee
survivev: to live or exist despite a dangerous event or period
combinationn: a collection of things that have been combined; an assemblage of separate parts or qualities
humidityn: the amount of water vapor in the air, typically as a percentage of the maximum that the air could hold at that temperature
indexn: a list of items, such as names, subjects, or keywords, that is arranged in a particular order and is usually found at the end of a book or document; a number or symbol that indicates the value or level of something, such as a stock index or a temperature index
temperaturen: the degree of hotness or coldness of a thing or place
bulbn: a rounded underground storage organ of some plants from which the plant grows; the rounded part of a cylindrical structure; electric lamp consisting of a glass ball
arrivaln: the act or situation of coming or being brought to a place; accomplishment of an objective
exclamationn: a sudden outcry or shout, especially one expressing strong emotion
desperateadj: feeling or showing a lack of hope and a willingness to do anything because of the problematic situation
destructiveadj: causing or able to cause tremendous and irreparable damage
balancen: a condition in which everything has the same weight or force; something left after other parts have been taken away
relationn: the way two persons or groups of people feel and act toward one another
crucialadj: extremely vital or necessary
perspectiven: a confident attitude toward something; a particular style of thinking about something
panicn: a sudden strong feeling of fear that cannot be controlled and prevents reasonable thought and action
physicallyadv: in a way related to a person’s body or appearance rather than their mind
declarev: to say, state, or announce something clearly, officially, or publicly
doomn: death, destruction, or some other terrible situation that cannot be avoided
turbulentadj: marked by a lot of sudden changes, confusion, or uncertainty; characterized by intense activity or agitation
terrifyingadj: very frightening or intimidating
historicadj: famous or significant in history, or potentially so
terrificadj: causing terror or fear; extremely great or intense; very good or excellent
roarv: to make a loud, deep sound, like a lion or a car engine
criticn: someone who expresses opinions about the quality of books, music, etc.
communaladj: belonging to or used by a group rather than individuals; for common use
rallyv: a public meeting of a group of people intended to arouse enthusiasm
crisisn: a time of great disagreement, confusion, or danger when problems must be resolved or critical decisions must be taken
unprecedentedadj: never having been seen, done, or known before
unleashv: to suddenly release a strong force, emotion, etc. that cannot be controlled
cooperationn: the act or situation of working together with someone towards a shared purpose, benefit, etc.
creativeadj: relating to or involving the use of skill and original and unusual ideas to create something
normn: something that is regarded as usual, typical, or standard
spurn: a thing that encourages someone to do something; any sharply pointed projection; (verb) to incite or stimulate someone or something
deckn: a flat surface that is usually made of wood or other material and is attached to a building, vehicle, or other structure
proposev: to make a proposal, declare a plan for something
climaten: the weather in a particular location averaged over some long period
acceleratev: to make something faster or earlier; to cause to develop or progress more quickly
rollv: to move in a particular direction by turning over and over or from side to side
diversityn: the quality or fact of many different types of things or people being included in something; a range of different things or people
multidisciplinaryadj: integrating or involving various academic fields or different skills in a topic or problem-solving approach
affairn: event, situation, or subject that is significant from a political or public perspective; a secretive or illicit sexual relationship
involvev: to include or affect someone or something as a necessary part of something else
engineern: a person whose job is designing, building, or maintaining something such as machines, structures, or software
medicinaladj: of or relating to the treatment or cure of disease
stemn: the central part of something from which other parts can develop or grow; the part of a word common to all its inflected variants; (verb) to grow out of, have roots in, or originate in
kitn: a set of tools, supplies, or equipment for a particular purpose
governv: to legally control and direct a country, city, group of people, etc. and be responsible for introducing new laws, organizing and maintaining public services
diplomacyn: the art and practice of conducting negotiations between nations, organizations, or people; the fine art of dealing with people in a sensitive and effective way
philosophyn: the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence, reason, knowledge, values, mind
financen: the management of money, credit, banking, and investments, especially by a government or commercial organization; the branch of economics that studies the management of money and other assets
softwaren: a set of computer programs and associated documentation and data for doing particular computational jobs
hardwaren: durable tools, machinery, and other equipment; the physical and electronic parts of a computer or other electronic systems
arrangev: to plan, prepare for, and carry out something
healv: to make a wound or injury to become well again
enactv: to make a law; to put something into practice
restorev: to repair or return something or someone to a previous good state or position
damn: a wall constructed over a river to block the flow of water, mainly used to generate energy
carbonn: a chemical element that can be found in pure form as diamond or graphite, and it is also an essential part of coal and oil and is found in all plants and animals
oxiden: a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element
atmospheren: the mass of air that surrounds the Earth; the pervading tone or mood of a place, situation, or creative work
yieldn: the total output of crops, profits, etc. that are produced; (verb) to produce or supply helpful something, such as a profit, an amount of food, or information
catastrophen: a sudden event that causes extreme ruin and misfortune
strikev: to wallop somebody or something with the hand, fist, or weapon; to have an emotional or cognitive impact upon
destructionn: the act of causing so much damage to something
economyn: the system by which a country or region produces manages, and distributes goods and services, including the money and finances involved in these activities; (of an airline) the lowest-priced, most basic option for seating in commercial travel
orientedadj: referring to someone or something that is focused or directed toward a particular goal or objective; organized around a specific principle or approach
nationn: a large organized community of people living in a particular country or region and having a particular culture
mechanismn: a part of a machine, or a set of parts that performs a task; a natural or established process that occurs during a specific situation or reaction
transformationn: a complete change in form, nature, or appearance of someone or something
encouragev: to give someone support, confidence, or hope; to persuade someone to do or continue to do something by making it easier for them and making them believe it is a good thing to do
governmentn: the group of people with authority to control a country or state
shiftn: a slight transition in position, direction, or trend
quantitativeadj: relating to, measuring, or expressing in terms of quantity; involving numerical or statistical data
fiatn: a formal authorization or order, typically given by a government, institution, or other authority figures; a decree or edict
preciseadj: sharply exact or accurate or delimited
proportionn: a part, share, or amount of something considered in comparative relation to a whole
sequesterv: to take temporary possession of someone’s property until a debt is paid.
soiln: the top layer of Earth in which plants grow
demonstrableadj: capable of being demonstrated, proven, or shown; able to be observed or verified
refrainv: to avoid or stop doing something; to hold oneself back from an action
monetaryadj: of or relating to the money in the country
fiscaladj: relating to government revenue and expenditures; relating to financial matters
policyn: a set of rules, guidelines, principles, or procedures that govern decision-making or action, often used in the context of business or government; a course of action or plan of action adopted or followed by an organization or individual to achieve a goal or objective
reorientv: to change the focus, position, or direction of someone or something
decarbonizev: to stop or reduce emitting carbon gases, especially carbon dioxide, by replacing energy made from fossil fuels with renewable energy
regenerativeadj: tending to regrow or restore lost or injured tissue
agriculturen: the practice or science of cultivating the land or raising stock
giantadj: enormous; much bigger or more important than similar items usually are
reforestationn: the process of replanting or regenerating forests, typically after they have been cut down or destroyed by natural disasters
appropriateadj: suitable or proper in the circumstances; fitting
drawdownn: the reduction or depletion of a resource, such as water, as a result of extraction or use; the act of withdrawing funds from an account or asset, typically associated with investment or borrowing
capturev: to catch a person or an animal and confine them in an area which they cannot escape
entirelyadv: completely
infrastructuren: the basic systems, services, or features that are necessary for an organization or country, such as transport and power supplies
renderv: to bring someone or something into a particular state; to provide something such as service, help, etc.
replacementn: the act of replacing something with something else, especially that is newer or better; a person or thing that takes or can take the place of another
concreteadj: existing in a physical or material form rather than an abstract one; based on facts rather than ideas or guesses; made of or covered with cement
steeln: a strong metal alloy made up of iron with typically a few tenths of a percent of carbon used for making things that need a strong structure
habitatn: the type of natural environment in which an organism or group usually lives or occurs
massn: a large amount of a substance with no definite shape or form; a large number of people or things grouped or crowded together
extinctionn: the complete disappearance of a species from the earth
fundamentaladj: forming an essential base or core from which everything else develops or is affected
installv: to fix furniture, a machine, or a piece of equipment into position so that it can be used; put into an office or a position
wattn: a standard unit for measuring electrical power
mammothadj: exceedingly large or extensive; (noun) any of numerous extinct elephants widely distributed in the Pleistocene
employv: to give somebody a job and pay them for it; to make use of
povertyn: the condition of being extremely poor
contradictionn: the assertion of the opposite of what has been said; opposition; denial
confusionn: the state of being mixed up or unclear, or the state of disorder or uncertainty
ingrainedadj: deeply rooted in someone’s mind or behavior; difficult to change due to being established for a long time
hindsightn: understanding or knowledge that comes after an event has occurred; the ability to perceive or understand events with greater clarity or accuracy in retrospect
excusen: a reason or explanation, either true or invented, given to justify a fault or defend your behavior; (verb) to make someone free from blame or clear from guilt
fossiln: any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing that has become hard and turned into rock
fueln: a substance that is typically burned to generate heat or energy
compensatev: to make up for a loss, injury, or inconvenience by giving something of value
destroyv: to ruin or damage severely or completely; to eradicate or eliminate completely
petrostaten: a nation or state whose economy is heavily reliant on the production and export of petroleum or other fossil fuels
timetablen: a schedule or plan that shows the times at which particular events or activities are intended to occur; a list of train, bus, or airplane departures and arrivals
extractn: a short passage taken from a book, piece of music, etc.; a substance obtained from something through a specific process; (verb) to obtain from something or to remove something by effort or force
transitn: the act or process of passing through or across a place or state; transportation
rechargev: to restore the energy or power of something by supplying it with more energy or power; to refresh or renew oneself by rest or sleep
infillv: to fill in or complete a space, usually by adding material to fill gaps or voids; (noun) the act of filling in or adding material to a space or gap, often used in construction or architecture to describe the process of filling in open spaces in a building or development
constructv: to build or create something; to assemble or combine different parts to form something whole
generationn: all the people born and living at about the same time, regarded collectively; the production of heat or electricity
individualn: a single person or thing, as distinct from a group
no-tilladj: a farming technique in which crops are planted directly into the soil without tilling or disturbing the land, often used to promote soil health and reduce erosion
ranchingn: the practice of raising livestock, typically cattle or sheep, on large areas of land, often referred to as ranches, for meat, wool, or other products
peatn: a type of soil made up of partially decayed organic matter (usually moss) that accumulates in wetlands or bogs, often used as fuel for heat and cooking in some regions of the world
boggyadj: containing a lot of soft, wet soil; marshy, swampy, or waterlogged
kelpn: a large brown seaweed that grows in cold coastal waters
swapv: to give something and receive something in trade
industriousadj: hardworking, diligent, and persistent in effort
slidev: to move or cause to move smoothly along a surface without interruption
turmoiln: a state of great disturbance, confusion, or uncertainty, often marked by intense activity or strong emotions
castv: to cause light or shadow to appear on a surface; to assing or choose someone such as an actor or representative, especially by selection process
deflectv: to cause something, especially a criticism or attack, to be directed away from someone
sunlightn: the light emitted by the sun; the rays of the sun
excoriatev: to criticize or berate harshly, usually in a public or official manner; to denounce or strongly condemn; to scratch or remove the outer layer of skin
emergencyn: a sudden unforeseen crisis usually involving danger that requires immediate action
instabilityn: the state of being unstable or uncertain and likely to change suddenly
wildfiren: a large, uncontrolled fire that spreads quickly through a natural area such as a forest, grassland, or mountain slope
divorcen: the legal dissolution of a marriage
velvetn: plush, smooth fabric with a short pile on one side, typically made of silk, cotton, or a synthetic material
reconcilev: to find a way of dealing with two or more ideas, needs, etc. that are opposed to each other to agree and coexist
chaosn: a state of complete confusion or disorder, often characterized by a lack of predictability or control
indigenousadj: someone or something that is native to or occurring naturally in a particular place
empowerv: to give someone the power or authority to do something
expandv: to increase or to make something greater in size, number, or importance
continuousadj: occurring or existing without a pause or interruption
undeniableadj: not possible to deny; true or certain
accordn: an official agreement or treaty between two organizations, countries, etc.; (verb) allow to have
percentagen: the number, amount, or rate of something, which is usually the amount per hundred
cousinn: the child of your aunt or uncle
reservev: to keep something for future use or contingency; to obtain or arrange something, such as a meeting, seat, etc., in advance
corridorn: a hallway or passageway, especially one connecting rooms or areas within a building or structure
migrationn: the movement of animals to a new location, frequently as the seasons change
inevitableadj: certain to happen and unavoidable
mutualadj: common to or shared by two or more parties
finessen: skillful handling of a situation or problem with diplomacy, tact, or grace; subtle, artful maneuvering; refinement or delicacy in performance or execution; (verb) to handle a situation or problem with sensitivity, tact, and diplomacy
recallv: to remember something
pumpv: to cause water, air, gas, etc. to move from one place to another by using mechanical equipment; to get or supply something such as money, information, etc. in significant quantities
meltv: to turn from something solid into something soft or liquid as a result of heating
glaciern: a slowly moving mass of ice formed from snow on mountains or near the North Pole or the South Pole
coastlinen: the particular shape of the coast (= the shore of a sea or ocean) as seen from the sea
beneathadv: in or to a lower place than someone or something
indicatev: to show, point out, or make known something, often through a sign or a symbol; to suggest or imply something without stating it directly
responsibleadj: answerable or accountable for something within one’s power, control, or management
treatyn: a formal agreement or pact between two or more countries or other international entities
negotiationn: the process of discussing and reaching an agreement with others
accomplishmentn: the successful completion of a task or goal; an ability that has been acquired by training
stabilityn: the quality or attribute of being firm and steadfast
grantv: to agree to give or allow somebody
gratefuladj: feeling or showing an appreciation of kindness; thankful
amazingadj: extremely surprising, especially in a way that you like or admire

Leave a Reply