Important (Read me first!)

This post is a commentary and does not contain any copyrighted material of the reference source.

We strongly recommend accessing/buying the reference source at the same time.

Reference Source

You can understand each word more deeply by utilizing the following YouTube Posts and PDF files.
Also, see how to use Englist.me?

All Words (166 Words)

You can learn all the words from basic to advanced levels in the order they appear in the contents.
If you want learn all words quickly, you can use Quick Look Video.

Quick Look


YouTube Post

Vocabulary Builder

Advanced Words (39 Words)

If you are confident in your vocabulary, you may prefer to study with content that covers only advanced-level words.

YouTube Post

Vocabulary Builder

Word List

You can quickly review the words in this content from the list below.

damn: a wall constructed over a river to block the flow of water, mainly used to generate energy
brainn: the organ inside the head that is responsible for one’s movement, thought, memory, and feeling
excitev: to make someone feel suddenly enthusiastic or eager
neurologyn: the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system
patientn: a person who is receiving medical treatment, care, or attention from a healthcare professional, such as a doctor, nurse, or therapist; a personal quality or characteristic
devastatingadj: causing a great deal of destruction or damage
treatmentn: the way in which someone deals with or behaves towards someone or something; medical care provided to a patient for an injury or illness.
diseasen: a disorder or illness that affects the body or mind, often characterized by specific symptoms or abnormal functioning of organs or systems
Alzheimern: a neurodegenerative disease that causes memory loss, cognitive decline, and behavioral issues; is the most common cause of dementia in older adults
obviousadj: easy to see, discover or understand
damagev: to harm or cause injury to something or someone, often resulting in decreased value or functionality; to impair or negatively affect something, such as a reputation or relationship; (noun) harm or injury that is caused to a person, thing, or entity
atrophyn: a decrease in size of a muscle, organ, etc., caused by disease or disuse
scarn: a mark that remains on the skin after a wound has healed
equivalentn: having the same value, quality, meaning, purpose, etc.
scleroticadj: referring to the hardening or thickening of a tissue, organ, or other body parts, often due to infection, disease, or aging
motorn: a device that converts electricity, fuel, etc. into movement and makes a machine, vehicle, etc. work
neuronn: a cell that is specialized to carry information within the brain and between the brain and other parts of the body
disordern: an untidy state or a lack of organization; a physical condition or illness that causes problems with how a section of the body or brain functions
representv: to speak, act, or be present on behalf of another person or group; to form or constitute
threatn: a strong indication or likelihood of harm, danger, or adverse consequences; an expression of intent to inflict harm or injury on someone or something, often made as a means of coercion or intimidation
relatev: to establish a connection or association between two or more things; to narrate or tell about an event, experience, or relationship; to empathize or feel sympathy with someone or something
individualn: a single person or thing, as distinct from a group
societaladj: relating to society or social relationships
medicaladj: relating to the treatment of illness or injuries; relating to the practice of medicine
terriblyadv: very badly; to a great extent or very much
nervousadj: worried and anxious about something; relating to the nerves
myelinn: a white fatty substance that covers around nerves, helping them to send signals effectively
insulatev: to protect something by interposing material that prevents heat, noise, electricity, etc.
harmonyn: the combination of simultaneous musical notes to produce a pleasing effect; an attractive combination of related things and their properties
extraordinaryadj: exceptional, unexpected, very unusual; surpassing the ordinary or usual
symphonyn: a long musical composition in Western classical music for orchestra, usually with three or four main parts called movements
electricaladj: relating to electricity
underpinv: to support or strengthen the foundations of something
emotev: to communicate through facial expressions, gestures, and body language to express strong feelings or emotions
roguen: a deceitful and unreliable person; a person who behaves badly
disruptv: to prevent or stop something, especially an event, activity, or process, from continuing in the usual way by causing a problem or disturbance
evidentadj: apparent to the mind, senses, or judgment
conductv: to organize and carry out a particular activity
ultimateadj: furthest or highest in degree or order
manifestv: to show something such as feeling, attitude, quality, etc. clearly through signs or actions
illustrationn: a picture or diagram in a book, magazine, or newspaper that is used to explain or decorate the text; the act or process of explaining something
clinicn: a building or hospital department where people can go for medical care or advice, especially of a particular condition
initialadj: of or happening at the beginning; (noun) the first letter of a word, especially a person’s name
diagnosev: to determine or distinguish the nature of a problem or an illness through a careful analysis
difficultyn: a condition or state that causes problems
eventuallyadv: finally, particularly after a long time or a lot of struggle, complications, and so on
predicamentn: a difficult, unpleasant, or embarrassing situation
wheelchairn: a chair fitted with large wheels for use as a means of transport by a person who is unable to walk
clipn: a small metal or plastic device used for holding an object or objects together or in place; a short part of electronic media, either an audio clip or video clip
consequencen: the outcome of a particular action or event, especially relative to an individual
shockingadj: extremely or surprisingly bad, or causing a strong emotional response such as surprise or disgust
pacen: the speed at which someone or something moves, or the rate at which something happens or changes
renderv: to bring someone or something into a particular state; to provide something such as service, help, etc.
respirev: to breathe; to inhale and exhale air; to live
dependentadj: relying on someone or something else for support or aid
scanv: to examine something hastily, with the eyes or with a machine, to get information
superimposev: to place, layer, or overlay one thing on top of another, typically in such a way that both are still visible; to add or combine something additional into an existing structure, design, or system
lesionn: a damaged or abnormal area of tissue in the body, usually caused by injury or disease
bleakadj: unlikely to be favorable; unpleasantly cold and damp; offering little or no hope
depressv: to make someone feel sad, low in spirits, or without hope; to make markets, businesses, etc., less active
talen: a story made up in someone’s imagination, especially one full of action and adventure
ridiculousadj: very silly or unreasonable and deserving to be laughed at
sectn: a group of people who follow a particular religious or philosophical belief system, especially one that is regarded as outside the norm or mainstream
illustratev: to provide pictures, photographs, diagrams, etc. in a book or something for explanation
amazingadj: extremely surprising, especially in a way that you like or admire
massn: a large amount of a substance with no definite shape or form; a large number of people or things grouped or crowded together
crucialadj: extremely vital or necessary
highlightv: to make something prominent, mainly so that people give it more attention
paleadj: having skin that is very light colored; lacking in vitality or interest or effectiveness
spiten: feelings of anger and resentment; (in spite of, also despite) a phrase that is used to indicate that something happened or exists even though there is a particular obstacle or difficulty
spontaneousadj: happening or being done naturally, often unexpected way, without being made to happen
stemn: the central part of something from which other parts can develop or grow; the part of a word common to all its inflected variants; (verb) to grow out of, have roots in, or originate in
insulationn: the act or process of covering something to stop heat, sound, electricity, etc. from passing through; the materials used for this
observationn: the act or activity of carefully examining or monitoring something or someone
orthodoxyn: adherence to a conventional or widely accepted set of beliefs or practices, especially in religion or politics; the accepted or established doctrine or teachings of a particular group or institution
livern: a large organ in the body, involved in many metabolic processes, such as detoxification of the organism, and the synthesis of proteins
therapyn: the act of caring for someone through medication, remedial training, etc.
rocketn: a large tube-shaped object that moves very first by a stream of gases let out behind it, used for space travel or as a weapon
promotev: to encourage or persuade people to like, buy, use, do, or support something; to raise someone to a higher position or rank
endogenousadj: originating or arising from within an organism, system, or process rather than from external factors; pertaining to internal causes or influences
complexityn: the state or quality of being complicated or intricate and difficult to understand
developv: to grow or expand; to improve or refine through a process of progress and refinement, often to achieve greater sophistication or complexity; to elaborate or add detail to something that is in the process of being created
riskyadj: involving the possibility of danger, failure, or loss
betv: to risk money on the result of an event or a competition, such as a race or game, to get more money; to have faith or confidence in something
oddsn: the degree or probability that a particular thing will or will not happen
roughlyadv: approximately but not precisely; with a violent manner
compoundn: an item composed of two or more distinct elements combined; a chemical formed by the combination of two or more elements
bottleneckn: a narrow or busy section of road or a junction where the traffic often gets slower and stops; anything that slows down development or progress, especially in business or industry
discoveryn: the act or process of finding information, a place, or an object, or learning about something that was previously not known
humankindn: the whole of the living human inhabitants of the earth
papaladj: relating to the pope (= the head of the Roman Catholic Church) or the Roman Catholic Church
absolutelyadv: without restriction or limitation; completely or utterly
specificallyadv: only associated with or meant for one thing
renewv: to begin or resume something again after an interruption
harnessv: to control and exploit the power of something, especially natural resources that produce energy; (noun) a set of narrow pieces of leather and metal that are used to control or hold in place a person, animal, or object
undoubtedlyadv: without a doubt; certainly; definitely
celebrityn: someone who is well-known, particularly in the entertainment industry
clonen: a plant or animal whose genetic information is identical to that of a parent organism from which it was created; an unauthorized copy or imitation
breakthroughn: a sudden, dramatic, and important discovery or development that helps to improve a situation or provide an answer to a problem
discussv: to talk about or examine in detail through conversation or debate; to exchange ideas, opinions, or information on a particular topic
fantasticadj: extremely good; excellent
ingredientn: one of the things used to make something, especially one of the foods used to make a particular dish
convertv: to have a talk with someone; (adjective) reversed in order, relation, or action
exaggeratev: to describe or represent something as better or worse than it is
bespeakv: to suggest or indicate something; to request something in advance; to suggest or indicate a particular quality or characteristic
tissuen: an ensemble of similar cells of the animal or plant that together carry out a specific function
kitn: a set of tools, supplies, or equipment for a particular purpose
pluripotentadj: describing cells that have the potential to differentiate into any specialized cell in the body, often used in the context of stem cell research and applications
relevancen: the state or degree of being closely connected or appropriate to the matter at hand
recurringadj: happening or occurring again periodically or repeatedly
absoluteadj: perfect or complete or to the most considerable degree possible
cornerstonen: a fundamental or essential element or component of something; a basis or foundation upon which something is built or developed
medicinaladj: of or relating to the treatment or cure of disease
opportuneadj: suitable or happening at a time that is suitable or convenient for a particular purpose
reprogramv: to modify or recreate a program
straightforwardadj: easy to do or understand, or simple; free from ambiguity
counterpartn: a person or thing that corresponds to or has the same function as another person or thing
unaffectedadj: not influenced or emotionally impacted by external factors or events; calm, composed, and emotionally stable
relativeadj: considered and evaluated through comparison with something else
geneticadj: of or relating to genes (= parts of the DNA in cells) or the science of genes
variationn: the act or state of changing; a difference or change in the way something is done, made or said
collaborationn: the act or situation of working together to create or produce something
colleaguen: one of a group of a coworker, especially in a profession or a business
inheritv: to receive money, property, or a title from someone after they have died
unimaginableadj: beyond what can be imagined or conceived; impossible to comprehend or envision
processn: a series of actions or operations performed to achieve a particular outcome or goal; a systematic procedure or approach used to accomplish a specific task or objective; a method of treating milk to make it suitable for consumption or use in other dairy products
engineern: a person whose job is designing, building, or maintaining something such as machines, structures, or software
fluorescev: to emit visible light when exposed to certain sources of radiation, such as ultraviolet light; to glow or shine brightly
assayv: to analyze or test a substance for its chemical composition or its quantity; to attempt or try something
throughputn: the amount of material or information that can be processed by a system or organization over a given period of time
automatedadj: carried out by machines or computers to replace or decrease human labor
candidaten: a person who is seeking or being considered for some kind of position, title, honor, or award; a job applicant
bypassn: an alternative road, channel, pipe, or connection that allows flow while the main one is closed or obstructed; (verb) to go past or round
mutualadj: common to or shared by two or more parties
exclusiveadj: not divided or shared with others
dividendn: a sum of money paid regularly, typically quarterly, by a company to its shareholders out of its profits or reserves
reactv: to take action in response to something
appropriateadj: suitable or proper in the circumstances; fitting
parachuten: a device used to slow the motion of people or objects through an atmosphere consisting of a large piece of thin cloth that is attached to them and opens out in the air
transplantv: to move or transfer something from one place or person to another; to take living tissue or an organ from one person, animal, part of the body, etc. and put it into or onto another
replacev: to take the place of something
experimentn: the scientific test conducted to observe what happens and gain new knowledge
clinicaladj: of or relating to the examination and treatment of patients rather than theoretical or laboratory studies
millern: a person who operates a mill (= a plant consisting of one or more buildings with facilities for manufacturing), especially a grain mill
marrown: a soft, fatty, vascular substance in the cavities of bones, in which blood cells are produced; the choicest or most essential part of some idea or experience
labn: a workplace for the conduct of scientific research; a laboratory
injectv: to put a liquid such as a drug or other substance into a person’s or an animal’s body using a needle and syringe (= small tube)
veinn: a blood vessel that carries blood from various parts of the body back to the heart; a mineral deposit or layer of rock that is contained within another rock formation
conceptualadj: related to or founded on ideas, principles
essentiallyadv: relating to the essential features or concepts of anything
opticadj: relating to vision or the eyes; relating to or involving light or optics
outcomen: the result or effect of an action, event, etc.
sufferv: to experience pain, distress, or hardship; to undergo or endure something painful or unpleasant
visionn: the ability to think about or see the future with imagination and intelligence; the faculty of being able to see
unclearadj: poorly stated or described and therefore not easy to understand; not easy to perceive
infusionn: a liquid, especially one containing medicine that is introduced into the body through a vein, muscle, or joint; the act of adding such liquid
gentleadj: having or showing a kindly or tender nature; soft and mild
declinev: to become gradually smaller, fewer, worse, etc.; to refuse to accept
shrinkv: to become smaller, or to make something smaller in size or amount
interventionn: the action or process of being done to improve or help a circumstance, often they have not been asked to do so
precursorn: a person or thing that comes before another of the same kind and that contributes to or influences its growth
proofn: a fact or piece of information that shows something is true or exists
conceptn: an idea or principle associated with something abstract
normn: something that is regarded as usual, typical, or standard
volumen: the amount of space occupied by an object or substance; the magnitude of sound
insightn: the ability to gain an accurate and deep understanding of people or situations; an accurate and deep understanding of what something is like