Important (Read me first!)

This post is a commentary and does not contain any copyrighted material of the reference source.

We strongly recommend accessing/buying the reference source at the same time.

Reference Source

You can understand each word more deeply by utilizing the following YouTube Posts and PDF files.
Also, see how to use Englist.me?

All Words (141 Words)

You can learn all the words from basic to advanced levels in the order they appear in the contents.
If you want learn all words quickly, you can use Quick Look Video.

Quick Look


YouTube Post

Vocabulary Builder

Advanced Words (33 Words)

If you are confident in your vocabulary, you may prefer to study with content that covers only advanced-level words.

YouTube Post

Vocabulary Builder

Word List

You can quickly review the words in this content from the list below.

introductoryadj: intended as an introduction or preliminary; serving as a base or starting point
patientn: a person who is receiving medical treatment, care, or attention from a healthcare professional, such as a doctor, nurse, or therapist; a personal quality or characteristic
lifesavingn: the act or process of rescuing someone else’s life, especially from drowning
symboln: something visible that is used to represent something else
transplantv: to move or transfer something from one place or person to another; to take living tissue or an organ from one person, animal, part of the body, etc. and put it into or onto another
kidneyn: either of a pair of small organs in the body that filter waste products, especially urea, from the blood and excrete them and water in urine
diseasen: a disorder or illness that affects the body or mind, often characterized by specific symptoms or abnormal functioning of organs or systems
worsenv: to become or make something worse
exponentialadj: becoming more and more rapid; of or involving mathematical exponents
anewadv: in a new or different way
heartbreakn: a feeling of great sadness or disappointment
disturbv: to interrupt someone who is trying to work, sleep, etc.
outletn: a means of release or expression, often for emotions or energy; a place of business that sells goods directly to customers; a device or opening through which something can flow out
desperateadj: feeling or showing a lack of hope and a willingness to do anything because of the problematic situation
obtainv: to get something, especially by making a great effort
crueladj: feeling or showing pleasure in causing pain or suffering to others
crisisn: a time of great disagreement, confusion, or danger when problems must be resolved or critical decisions must be taken
staken: a share or financial investment in something such as a business; a wooden or metal post set up to mark something
biologyn: the scientific study of life and the natural processes of living things
geneticsn: the branch of biology that studies genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms
optimisticadj: hoping or expecting that good thing will happen or something will be successful
editv: to prepare written material for publication by correcting, condensing, or otherwise modifying it
exquisiteadj: extremely beautiful and delicate
incredibleadj: unbelievable; enormous
processn: a series of actions or operations performed to achieve a particular outcome or goal; a systematic procedure or approach used to accomplish a specific task or objective; a method of treating milk to make it suitable for consumption or use in other dairy products
physiologyn: the branch of the biological sciences dealing with the functioning of organisms
pioneern: inventor; explorer; someone who is among the first to achieve something
fundamentaladj: forming an essential base or core from which everything else develops or is affected
hurdlen: a barrier or obstacle that must be overcome
rejectionn: the act of refusing to accept, use, or consider someone or something; in medicine, an immunological response that refuses to accept substances or organisms that are recognized as foreign
immuneadj: protected against a particular disease or toxin due to the presence of specific antibodies or sensitized white blood cells
rejectv: to refuse to accept, consider, or use something or someone
specificadj: clearly defined or particular to a certain thing or situation; distinct, explicit, and precise
virusn: a tiny infectious organic material that causes disease in people, animals, and plants
benignadj: kind and gentle; not harmful or malicious
transmitv: to send or forward an electronic signal; to pass something from one person or thing to another
porcineadj: relating to or resembling pigs; having similar characteristics or habits as pigs
endogenousadj: originating or arising from within an organism, system, or process rather than from external factors; pertaining to internal causes or influences
retrovirusn: a type of RNA virus that uses the enzyme reverse transcriptase to convert its RNA into DNA, which then inserts itself into the host cell’s genome, which can cause a variety of diseases in humans and animals, including HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
viraladj: relating to or caused by a virus
epidemicn: the widespread outbreak of a particular disease in a large number of people at the same time
progressionn: the act or process of changing to the next stage or phase or moving forward
legendaryadj: famous or well-known, especially through long-standing popular stories or tradition
dragonn: a mythical monster typically depicted as a giant reptile with wings, claws, and a fiery breath often portrayed as being fierce and dangerous
ancientadj: relating to the long ago, particularly the historical period preceding the fall of the Western Roman Empire; very old
templen: a place of worship, especially one that is associated with a particular religion or faith; the flat area on either side of the forehead
vividadj: producing very clear, powerful, and detailed images in the mind
tossv: to throw something carelessly with a light motion
peanutn: a type of legume that grows underground and is widely cultivated and consumed as a food source
distractv: to draw someone’s attention away from what they are trying to do
hiken: a long walk or journey, especially for pleasure or exercise; an increase in cost
valleyn: a long depression on the surface of the land, which typically contains a river
geneticadj: of or relating to genes (= parts of the DNA in cells) or the science of genes
makeupn: colored substances used on someone’s face to improve or change their appearance
pathogenn: a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that causes disease
questn: a long or challenging search for something
tormentn: unbearable physical pain or extreme mental distress; (verb) to cause severe physical or mental suffering to someone, or to be the victim of such suffering
nerdn: a person who is very interested in and knowledgeable about a particular subject such as computers, mathematics, chess, etc.
decidev: to make up someone’s mind about something; to come to a conclusion or judgment after considering options
churchn: a building or institution dedicated to religious worship or activities; a Christian religious organization or denomination
labn: a workplace for the conduct of scientific research; a laboratory
experimentn: the scientific test conducted to observe what happens and gain new knowledge
mammaln: any animal of which the female gives birth to live young, not eggs, and feeds her young on milk from her own body
colleaguen: one of a group of a coworker, especially in a profession or a business
excitingadj: causing a lot of interest or excitement
discoveryn: the act or process of finding information, a place, or an object, or learning about something that was previously not known
genen: the fundamental unit of heredity and the sequence of nucleotides in DNA that codes for the creation of RNA or protein.
componentn: one of several parts that combines with others to form something bigger
scissorv: (noun, usually “scissors”) a cutting instrument consisting of a pair of metal blades; to cut or clip something with scissors; to move or position two things that cross each other like a pair of scissors
enzymen: a substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction
microscopen: an instrument used to see objects or substances that are too small to be seen with the naked eye
physiciann: a medical doctor who practices medicine
massn: a large amount of a substance with no definite shape or form; a large number of people or things grouped or crowded together
intriguev: to make someone interested, especially by being strange, unusual, or mysterious; to make a secret plan with other people to harm someone
medicaladj: relating to the treatment of illness or injuries; relating to the practice of medicine
complexityn: the state or quality of being complicated or intricate and difficult to understand
compatibleadj: capable of coexisting or working together without conflict or inconsistency; harmonious or well-matched
nucleusn: the central and most important part of something; (biology) a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction; (physics) the very dense central region of an atom
implantv: to insert or fix an artificial device in a person’s body; to put an idea, attitude, etc., firmly in the mind
dividev: to separate or cause to separate into parts or groups
embryon: an animal organism in the early stages of growth, either in its mother’s womb or in an egg, or a plant that is developing in a seed
uterusn: a hollow muscular organ in the body of a woman or other female mammal in which a baby or young animal develops before birth
surrogateadj: acting as a substitute or replacement for someone or something else; having a similar function or purpose
clonen: a plant or animal whose genetic information is identical to that of a parent organism from which it was created; an unauthorized copy or imitation
pigletn: a young or small pig
tacklev: to try to deal with a complex problem or situation
transmissionn: the act or process of sending something from one person or place to another; the process of broadcasting over the airwaves, as in radio or television
genomen: the complete set or sequence of genes of a human, animal, plant, or other living things
modificationn: the act of changing something, usually to improve it, or something changed
throughputn: the amount of material or information that can be processed by a system or organization over a given period of time
hundredfoldadj: a hundred times as great or as much
achievev: to successfully complete a task or goal, often through hard work, perseverance, and dedication; to attain or accomplish something that one has set out to do
eliminatev: to remove or get rid of someone or something
possibilityn: a chance that something may happen or be true
modifyv: to change something slightly, such as a plan, option, law, etc., especially to make it more suitable for a particular purpose
start-upn: a newly established company or business
genesisn: the origin or beginning of something; the first book of the biblical scriptures of both Judaism and Christianity, describing the creation of the Earth and humankind
representv: to speak, act, or be present on behalf of another person or group; to form or constitute
criticn: someone who expresses opinions about the quality of books, music, etc.
platformn: the raised flat space close to the track at a train station where passengers get on or off the train; (technology) a computational or digital environment in which a piece of software is executed
immunologyn: the branch of medical science that deals with the immune system of the body and its functions, including the body’s response to foreign substances such as viruses and bacteria; it also involves the study of immunodeficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and immunotherapies
advancev: to go or move forward; to develop in a positive way
orbitn: the path of an object around a celestial body, especially a planet, star, or moon, under the influence of gravity.
siblingn: a brother or sister; member of a family born to the same parents
frontiern: a border that separates two countries, or the area near this line
medicinaladj: of or relating to the treatment or cure of disease
sufferv: to experience pain, distress, or hardship; to undergo or endure something painful or unpleasant
livern: a large organ in the body, involved in many metabolic processes, such as detoxification of the organism, and the synthesis of proteins
donationn: a voluntary gift of money, service, or ideas that are given to a person or an organization, or the act of giving them
diabetesn: a medical condition in which the body cannot produce enough insulin to control the glucose levels in the blood
relyv: to require a specific thing or the assistance and support of someone or something to continue, run properly, or succeed.
insulinn: a hormone produced in the pancreas that controls the amount of sugar in the blood, or a similar artificial substance used for the treatment of diabetes
pancreasn: a glandular organ in the digestive system that produces several important hormones, including insulin and glucagon, as well as digestive enzymes that help break down food in the small intestine
burdenn: a duty, responsibility, etc. that is oppressive or worrisome; a load, typically a heavy one that is difficult to carry
dialysisn: a medical treatment that removes waste and excess fluids from the blood of a patient with kidney failure
strivev: to try very hard to do, achieve, or obtain something
humbleadj: having or showing a modest or low estimate of one’s quality or importance
anticipatev: to expect or predict that something will happen; to tell in advance
responsibleadj: answerable or accountable for something within one’s power, control, or management
translatev: to convert or change words into another language
cutting-edgeadj: being at the forefront of a particular field or development; (noun) the latest or most advanced stage in the development of a specific type of work or activity
extraordinaryadj: exceptional, unexpected, very unusual; surpassing the ordinary or usual
ridv: to make someone or something free of unwanted or unpleasant tasks, objects, or person
involvev: to include or affect someone or something as a necessary part of something else
yangn: in Chinese philosophy, the masculine or active principle characterized as light and the sun and associated with hardness, dryness, and heat
complicatedadj: involving a lot of different things or parts in a way that is difficult to understand or analyze
antigenn: a substance that triggers the body’s immune response (= the reaction for fighting infections) for defending the body, especially by producing antibodies (= proteins that identify and attack harmful bacteria, viruses, etc.)
additionn: the act or process of adding something to something else; the process of adding numbers
cancern: abnormal growth of cells that can invade and destroy surrounding tissues and organs; a disease characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells
invadev: to enter aggressively into another’s territory by military force for conquest and occupation
circumventv: to go around, avoid, or bypass something, often to achieve an intended goal or objective; to outmaneuver or outsmart a person or obstacle
utilizev: to use something for a practical purpose in an effective way
implementv: to put a decision, plan, or system into effect
estimatev: to guess or calculate the cost, size, value, etc. of something
irresponsibleadj: not showing a proper sense of responsibility; not reliable
excitev: to make someone feel suddenly enthusiastic or eager
hummingadj: producing a continuous, low, vibrating sound like that of the bee
exploitv: to make full use of and gain an advantage from resources, opportunities, etc.
harvestn: yields of plants in a single growing season; the period of the year when gathering occurs on a farm
unmetadj: describing a need, goal, or expectation that has not been satisfied or fulfilled
baconn: a type of salt-cured pork that is usually sliced and fried; a meat product that is derived from the back or sides of a pig