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graduaten: a person who has a first degree from university or college; (verb) to complete the first course of university or college and get a degree
anthropologyn: the scientific study of humanity, concerned with human behavior, human biology, cultures, societies, and linguistics in both the present and past, including past human species
conductv: to organize and carry out a particular activity
fieldworkn: real-world research or study conducted outside a library or laboratory.
indigenousadj: someone or something that is native to or occurring naturally in a particular place
developv: to grow or expand; to improve or refine through a process of progress and refinement, often to achieve greater sophistication or complexity; to elaborate or add detail to something that is in the process of being created
bugn: any tiny insect; a fault or defect in a computer program, system, or machine
canoen: a narrow, light boat with pointy ends and no keel that is propelled by a paddle
junglen: an area of tropical forest where in which trees and plants grow very thickly
independencen: freedom from another’s or others’ control or influence
papayan: tropical fruit with a soft orange or yellow flesh and black seeds, often used in salads, smoothies, and other culinary dishes for its sweet and slightly tangy flavor
siblingn: a brother or sister; member of a family born to the same parents
macheten: a large, heavy knife with a broad blade used for cutting vegetation or, in some cultures, as a weapon
confidentadj: feeling sure about your abilities or qualities or having trust in people, plans, or the future
shockn: a strong feeling or physical reaction to a sudden and unexpected event or experience, especially something unpleasant
statisticsn: the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data
suddenlyadv: quickly and unexpectedly
free-rangeadj: referring to animals that are allowed to roam and forage freely instead of being confined to a small space
cell-phonen: a portable electronic device used for making and receiving phone calls, sending text messages, and accessing the internet wirelessly
fadev: to vanish; to fade away; to lose color; to lose freshness
virtuallyadv: almost completely
planetn: any of the nine large celestial bodies that circle in the solar system; any celestial body that revolves around a star
huntv: to go after and try to catch wild animals to kill them for food, sport, or profit
environmentn: the natural world such as air, water, and land in which humans, animals, and plants live
drasticadj: radical and extreme; likely to have a significant or far-reaching impact
evolutionaryadj: relating to or denoting how living things develop or change from earlier forms
mismatchv: to put together or match items that are not compatible or do not fit well together; to be different from or not correspond to something else
cultn: a small religious group, especially one that is not part of a larger religion and that is regarded as outside the norm; followers of an exclusive system of beliefs and practices
evolutionn: a gradual process of transformation of living things
geneticadj: of or relating to genes (= parts of the DNA in cells) or the science of genes
optimizev: to make the best or most effective use of something
fossiln: any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing that has become hard and turned into rock
clarifyv: to make something, such as a statement or situation, less confusing and more understandable
prehistoricadj: belonging to or existing in times before recorded history; no longer fashionable
modernadj: of or belonging to the present time or recent times
cluen: an object, a piece of evidence, or some information that helps someone to find the answer to a problem, question, or mystery
instancen: a particular example or single occurrence of something
breastfeedingn: the act of feeding a baby with milk produced by the mother’s breasts
frequentadj: happening constantly
constantlyadv: all the time
prevalentadj: existing very commonly in a particular area or in a specific time
formulan: a group of symbols, letters, or numbers that represent a rule, law, or mathematical statement
massiveadj: enormous amount; very heavy and solid
whackv: to hit someone or something hard or noisily
consequencen: the outcome of a particular action or event, especially relative to an individual
bacterian: single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms that exist in large numbers in the air, water, and soil, and also in living and dead creatures and plants, and are often a cause of disease
gutn: the long tube in the body of a person or animal through which food passes when it leaves the stomach; the mental strength or bravery required to do something difficult or unpleasant
immuneadj: protected against a particular disease or toxin due to the presence of specific antibodies or sensitized white blood cells
negativeadj: having the quality of something bad or harmful; expressing refusal
featn: a notable or impressive achievement, especially one that requires great skill or bravery
communaladj: belonging to or used by a group rather than individuals; for common use
complexityn: the state or quality of being complicated or intricate and difficult to understand
alternateadj: occurring or existing one after the other regularly
gendern: the range of characteristics of femininity and masculinity and differentiating between them, especially when considering social and cultural differences rather than differences in biology
draman: a play in a theatre, television, or radio, or performance on a stage
intriguev: to make someone interested, especially by being strange, unusual, or mysterious; to make a secret plan with other people to harm someone
enormousadj: extremely large or great
complicatedadj: involving a lot of different things or parts in a way that is difficult to understand or analyze
maintainv: to continue to uphold or sustain; to keep in a particular state or condition; to assert or declare something to be true
creativeadj: relating to or involving the use of skill and original and unusual ideas to create something
determinationn: the quality of being persistent and purposeful; the act of finding out the exact nature or essence of something
excitev: to make someone feel suddenly enthusiastic or eager
observev: to watch or notice something carefully, often to gather information or insights; to take note of something or someone; to celebrate or commemorate a special event or occasion
incorporatev: to include something as a part of a larger entity
evolvev: to develop gradually, or to cause the development of something or someone gradually
encouragev: to give someone support, confidence, or hope; to persuade someone to do or continue to do something by making it easier for them and making them believe it is a good thing to do
unstructuredadj: not having a clear organization or arrangement
slightlyadv: in a small degree or extent; a little
strengthenv: to become stronger or more effective; to make someone or something stronger or more effective
structuren: the way of construction of something and the arrangement of its parts, or a complex thing constructed of many parts
determinantn: a factor, circumstance, or condition that contributes to the shaping, influencing, or determining of a particular outcome or result
recessn: a period of time when the members of a parliament, committee, etc., are adjourned; a short break in a trial in court
byproductn: a secondary or incidental product produced in the manufacture or synthesis of something else
micromanagementn: a style of management characterized by excessive attention to detail and control, often resulting in inefficient or demotivating work environments
exposuren: the state of being in a particular situation or place where there is no protection from or guarantee to something harmful; the disclosure of something secret
craftn: an activity that requires a particular skill in making things with one’s hands
monitorv: to observe, check, and track the progress or quality of something over a period of time
unnecessaryadj: not needed or required; not essential or important
anxietyn: a feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease about something that is happening or might happen in the future
detrimentaladj: causing harm or damage
millenniumn: a span of 1000 years, or the 1000th anniversary (plural: millennia)
contributev: to give something, especially money or goods, to provide or achieve something together with other people
increasinglyadv: more and more
flipv: to turn over into a different position quickly; to throw or toss with a light motion
unpreparedadj: not properly or adequately prepared; lacking preparation; not ready
transitionn: the process or period of changing from one state or circumstance to another
dauntingadj: looking challenging to manage in prospect; making someone anxious and less confident about carrying out something
explorev: to travel to or penetrate an area or a country to learn about it; to thoroughly examine a subject or a possibility to learn more about it
naturalismn: a philosophical belief that everything, including human behavior and cognition, can be explained solely by natural causes and laws
fallacyn: a mistaken belief, idea, or argument that is not supported by facts or evidence; a deceptive or misleading statement or belief
broadadj: very wide; general
perspectiven: a confident attitude toward something; a particular style of thinking about something
solvern: a thinker who finds an answer to a problem or a difficult situation; a piece of software or the algorithm that solves a mathematical problem
paradoxicaladj: seemingly contradictory or absurd because of having two opposite features or facts, though it is probably true
underminev: to make someone or something less powerful, less effective, weaker gradually; to make someone’s fame, confidence, or authority less effective or weaker gradually
tried-and-trueadj: proven or tested through experience or practice; established as reliable or effective over time; often used to describe methods, techniques, or products that are known to work well
relevancen: the state or degree of being closely connected or appropriate to the matter at hand
applicableadj: fit or suitable to be applied; having relevance to a person or thing
recognizev: to acknowledge or realize something or someone; to identify, remember, or become aware of something that was previously known or encountered

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